Common Terms and their meaning

word Definition
Aleurone layer
The outermost layer of the endosperm - is often separated from the endosperm during the milling process. It is a very rich source of vitamins
The name Bio refers to organic: a bio flour will be certified by various stringent regulations to adhere to the specifications of an organically produced product
The fibrous outer shell which protects the endosperm and germ inside
Durum flour
Made using the finely ground powder that is left over from semola; it is more pliable than semola, and well suited for pasta shapes such as spaghetti or sheets of lasagne
Durum wheat
Also known as Triticum Durum, it is used to produce wheat semolina and then pasta in Europe, is grown in drier areas with a higher proportion of protein, water and calcium than soft wheat
A starchy carbohydrate flesh that comprises the largest part of the grain
Flour refinement
Refers to how much of the flour is endosperm
A tiny, fatty seed in the center that comprises the reproductive part of the plant
Gluten free flour
Flour made of a combination of gluten-free grains and vegetables such as rice, sorghum, etc. It is perfect flour to use for baking and pasta that otherwise would be forbidden to those suffering from digestive problems.
Same as Type 2 (i.e. whole wheat) except slightly coarser in texture
Manitoba flour
Made from a wheat which originated in Canada, is characterised by its strength and elasticity
The process of grinding that creates flours from the kernels of the cereal grains
Soft Wheat
Also known as Triticum Aestivum, it is used to produce flour, grown mainly in warm and temperate regions. Their content in starch, fat, iron, phosphorus and vitamin B is higher than in durum wheat
Comes from the same crop as durum wheat, but is milled differently from durum flour. It is made from endosperm which is separated from the durum grains during milling
Type “00” flour
Soft wheat flour used in kitchens across Italy: perfect for pasta (especially pasta that is meant to be filled, such as ravioli, or cut into flat strands, such as tagliatelle and for baking cakes, tender tarts, pastries
Type “0” flour
Whole wheat, more finely refined than the ultra-refined “00”
Type “1” flour
Wheat flour more coarsely ground than “00” and “0”
Type “2” flour
A 100% whole wheat flour made using the entire grain: the germ, the bran, and the endosperm. Since the bran is brown or red, this flour tends to be brown or red. It is coarser and is considered the healthiest option.
It is the indicator of the strength of flour. In baking, the gluten level in flour is referred to as its “strength.” Flours with more gluten are considered “stronger,” while flours with less gluten are considered “weaker.”